If you have not done any research into Ellagic Acid and its effects on the immune system and cardiovascular system, I would suggest you take a look at the following research study reviews. Ellagic acid is a very powerful antioxidant and when it is taken in whole food form from raspberries the results are extremely positive.
SUPPLEMENTS AND CHEMO - please read the following article.
S T U D Y A B S T R A C T # 1
Effect of chemopreventive agents on DNA adduction induced by the potent mammary carcinogen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the human breast cells MCF-7.
Taken from: Mutat Res 2001 Sep 1;480-481:97-108
Smith WA, Freeman JW, Gupta RC.
Graduate Center for Toxicology, 354 Health Sciences Research Building, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0305, USA.
Over 1500 structurally diverse chemicals have been identified which have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. The efficacy and mechanisms of this growing list of chemoprotective agents may be studied using short-term bioassays that employ relevant end-points of the carcinogenic process. In this study, we have examined the effects of eight potential chemopreventive agents, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), benzylisocyanate (BIC), chlorophyllin, curcumin, 1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), ellagic acid, genistein, and oltipraz, on DNA adduction of the potent mammary carcinogen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) using the human breast cell line MCF-7. Bioactivation of DBP by MCF-7 cells resulted in the formation of one predominant (55%) dA-derived and several other dA- or dG-derived DNA adducts. Three test agents, oltipraz, D3T, and chlorophyllin substantially (>65%) inhibited DBP-DNA adduction at the highest dose tested (30 microM). These agents also significantly inhibited DBP adduct levels at a lower dose of 15 microM, while oltipraz was effective even at the lowest dose of 5 microM. Two other agents, genistein and ellagic acid were moderate (45%) DBP-DNA adduct inhibitors at the highest dose tested, while NAC, curcumin, and BIC were ineffective.
These studies indicate that the MCF-7 cell line is an applicable model to study the efficacy of cancer chemopreventive agents in a human setting. Moreover, this model may also provide information regarding the effect of the test agents on carcinogen bioactivation and detoxification enzymes.
S T U D Y A B S T R A C T # 2
Tannins, xenobiotic metabolism and cancer chemoprevention in experimental animals.
Taken from: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1999 Apr-Jun;24(2):183-9
Nepka C, Asprodini E, Kouretas D.
Cytopathology Laboratory, Serres, Greece.
Tannins are plant polyphenolic compounds that are contained in large quantities in food and beverages (tea, red wine, nuts, etc.) consumed by humans daily. It has been shown that various tannins exert broad cancer chemoprotective activity in a number of animal models. This review summarizes the recent literature regarding both the mechanisms involved, and the specific organ cancer models used in laboratory animals. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that tannins act as both anti-initiating and antipromoting agents. In view of the fact that tannins may be of valid medicinal efficacy in human clinical trials, the present review attempts to integrate results from animal studies, and considers their possible application in humans.
The effects of dietary ellagic acid on rat hepatic and esophageal mucosal cytochromes P450 and phase II enzymes.
Taken from: Carcinogenesis 1996 Apr;17(4):821-8
Ahn D, Putt D, Kresty L, Stoner GD, Fromm D, Hollenberg PF.
Department of Surgery, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol possesses broad chemoprotective properties. Dietary EA has been shown to reduce the incidence of N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced rat esophageal tumors. In this study changes in the expression and activities of specific rat hepatic and esophageal mucosal cytochromes P450 (P450) and phase II enzymes following dietary EA treatment were investigated. Liver and esophageal mucosal microsomes and cytosol were prepared from three groups of Fisher 344 rats which were fed an AIN-76 diet containing no EA or 0.4 or 4.0 g/kg EA for 23 days.
In the liver total P450 content decreased by up to 25% and P450 2E1-catalyzed p-nitrophenol hydroxylation decreased by 15%. No changes were observed in P450 1A1, 2B1 or 3A1/2 expression or activities or cytochrome b5 activity. P450 reductase activity decreased by up to 28%. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) expression decreased by up to 85% after EA treatment, but mEH activities did not change. The hepatic phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H:quinone reductase ?NAD-(P)H:QR? and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activities increased by up to 26, 17 and 75% respectively. Assays for specific forms of GST indicated marked increases in the activities of isozymes 2-2 (190%), 4-4 (150%) and 5-5 (82%). In the rat esophageal mucosa only P450 1A1 could be detected by Western blot analysis and androstendione was the only P450 metabolite of testosterone detectable. However, there were no differences in the expression of P450 1A1, the formation of androstendione or NAD(P)H:QR activities between control and EA-fed rats in the esophagus.
Although there was no significant decrease in overall GST activity, as measured with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), there was a significant decrease in the activity of the 2-2 isozyme (66% of control). In vitro incubations showed that EA at a concentration of 100 microM inhibited P450 2E1, 1A1 and 2B1 activities by 87, 55 and 18% respectively, but did not affect 3A1/2 activity. Using standard steady-state kinetic analyses, EA was shown to be a potent non-competitive inhibitor of both liver microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activities, with apparent Ki values of approximately 55 and 14 microM respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that EA causes a decrease in total hepatic P450 with a significant effect on hepatic P450 2E1, increases some hepatic phase II enzyme activities ?GST, NAD-(P)H:QR and UDPGT? and decreases hepatic mEH expression. It also inhibits the catalytic activity of some P450 isozymes in vitro. Thus the chemoprotective effect of EA against various chemically induced cancers may involve decreases in the rates of metabolism of these carcinogens by phase I enzymes, due to both direct inhibition of catalytic activity and modulation of gene expression, in addition to effects on the expression of phase II enzymes, thereby enhancing the ability of the target tissues to detoxify the reactive intermediates.
p53/p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression and its possible role in G1 arrest and apoptosis in ellagic acid treated cancer cells.
Taken from: Cancer Lett 1999 Mar 1;136(2):215-21
Narayanan BA, Geoffroy O, Willingham MC, Re GG, Nixon DW.
Cancer Prevention Program, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Ellagic acid is a phenolic compound present in fruits and nuts including raspberries, strawberries and walnuts. It is known to inhibit certain carcinogen-induced cancers and may have other chemopreventive properties. The effects of ellagic acid on cell cycle events and apoptosis were studied in cervical carcinoma (CaSki) cells. We found that ellagic acid at a concentration of 10(-5) M induced G arrest within 48 h, inhibited overall cell growth and induced apoptosis in CaSki cells after 72 h of treatment. Activation of the cdk inhibitory protein p21 by ellagic acid suggests a role for ellagic acid in cell cycle regulation of cancer cells.
Chemoprevention of esophageal tumorigenesis by dietary administration of lyophilized black raspberries.
Taken from: Cancer Res 2001 Aug 15;61(16):6112-9
Kresty LA, Morse MA, Morgan C, Carlton PS, Lu J, Gupta A, Blackwood M, Stoner GD.
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
Fruit and vegetable consumption has consistently been associated with decreased risk of a number of aerodigestive tract cancers, including esophageal cancer. We have taken a "food-based" chemopreventive approach to evaluate the inhibitory potential of lyophilized black raspberries (LBRs) against N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal tumorigenesis in the F344 rat, during initiation and postinitiation phases of carcinogenesis. Anti-initiation studies included a 30-week tumorigenicity bioassay, quantification of DNA adducts, and NMBA metabolism study. Feeding 5 and 10% LBRs, for 2 weeks prior to NMBA treatment (0.25 mg/kg, weekly for 15 weeks) and throughout a 30-week bioassay, significantly reduced tumor multiplicity (39 and 49%, respectively). In a short-term bioassay, 5 and 10% LBRs inhibited formation of the promutagenic adduct O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-meGua) by 73 and 80%, respectively, after a single dose of NMBA at 0.25 mg/kg. Feeding 5% LBRs also significantly inhibited adduct formation (64%) after NMBA administration at 0.50 mg/kg. The postinitiation inhibitory potential of berries was evaluated in a second bioassay with sacrifices at 15, 25, and 35 weeks. Administration of LBRs began after NMBA treatment (0.25 mg/kg, three times per week for 5 weeks). LBRs inhibited tumor progression as evidenced by significant reductions in the formation of preneoplastic esophageal lesions, decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity, and reduced cellular proliferation. At 25 weeks, both 5 and 10% LBRs significantly reduced tumor incidence (54 and 46%, respectively), tumor multiplicity (62 and 43%, respectively), proliferation rates, and preneoplastic lesion development. Yet, at 35 weeks, only 5% LBRs significantly reduced tumor incidence and multiplicity, proliferation indices and preneoplastic lesion formation. In conclusion, dietary administration of LBRs inhibited events associated with both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis, which is promising considering the limited number of chemopreventives with this potential.
DNA gyrase inhibitory activity of ellagic acid derivatives.
Taken from: Cancer Res 2001 Aug 15;61(16):6112-9
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1998 Jan 6;8(1):97-100
Weinder-Wells MA, Altom J, Fernandez J, Fraga-Spano SA, Hilliard J, Ohemeng K, Barrett JF.
R.W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Raritan, NJ 08869, USA.
Ellagic acid was found to inhibit E. coli DNA gyrase supercoiling with approximately the same potency as nalidixic acid. Tricyclic analogs of ellagic acid, which vary in the number and position of the hydroxy groups as well as their replacement with halogens, have been synthesized. The biological activity of these analogs is discussed.
Antioxidant properties of novel preparations--bioflavonoid derivatives and tannins. --- (This is translation. Article written in Russian)
Taken from: Eksp Klin Farmakol 2001 Mar-Apr;64(2):55-9
Iakovleva LV, Gerasimova OA, Karbusheva IV, Ivakhnenko AK, Buniatian ND, Sakharova TS.
Central Research Laboratory, Ukrainian Pharmaceutical Academy, ul. Pushkinskaya 53, Kharkov, 310002 Ukraine.
New medicinal plant preparations of polyphenol nature, representing the derivatives of bioflavonoids (piflamin) and ellagotannins (altan and ellagic acid) were experimentally studied. The drugs exhibited antioxidant properties, which were manifested by inhibition of a pathological lipid peroxidation, restoration of the functional activity of the antioxidant system components, and stabilization of the hepatocyte (liver cell) membranes.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cDNA integration: new aromatic hydroxylated inhibitors and studies of the inhibition mechanism.
Taken from: Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998 Sep;42(9):2245-53
Farnet CM, Wang B, Hansen M, Lipford JR, Zalkow L,
Robinson WE Jr, Siegel J, Bushman F.
Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, USA.
Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cDNA is a required step for viral replication. Integrase, the virus-encoded enzyme important for integration, has not yet been exploited as a target for clinically useful inhibitors. Here we report on the identification of new polyhydroxylated aromatic inhibitors of integrase including ellagic acid, purpurogallin, 4,8, 12-trioxatricornan, and hypericin, the last of which is known to inhibit viral replication. These compounds and others were characterized in assays with subviral preintegration complexes (PICs) isolated from HIV-1-infected cells. Hypericin was found to inhibit PIC assays, while the other compounds tested were inactive. Counterscreening of these and other integrase inhibitors against additional DNA-modifying enzymes revealed that none of the polyhydroxylated aromatic compounds are active against enzymes that do not require metals (methylases, a pox virus topoisomerase). However, all were cross-reactive with metal-requiring enzymes (restriction enzymes, a reverse transcriptase), implicating metal atoms in the inhibitory mechanism. In mechanistic studies, we localized binding of some inhibitors to the catalytic domain of integrase by assaying competition of binding by labeled nucleotides. These findings help elucidate the mechanism of action of the polyhydroxylated aromatic inhibitors and provide practical guidance for further inhibitor development.
Inhibition of liver fibrosis by ellagic acid.
Taken from: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1996 Oct;40(4):363-6
Thresiamma KC, Kuttan R.
Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Trichur, Kerala.
Chronic administration of carbon tetrachloride in liquid paraffin (1.7) ip; 0.15 ml, (20 doses) has been found to produce severe hepatotoxicity, as seen from the elevated levels of serum and liver glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxides. The chronic administration of carbon tetrachloride was also found to produce liver fibrosis as seen from pathological analysis as well as elevated liver-hydroxy proline. Oral administration of ellagic acid was found to significantly reduce the elevated levels of enzymes, lipid peroxide and liver hydroxy proline in these animals and rectified liver pathology. These results indicate that ellagic acid administration orally can circumvent the carbon tetrachloride toxicity and subsequent fibrosis.
S T U D Y A B S T R A C T # 1 0
The protective action of ellagic acid in experimental myocarditis --- [This is translation. Article written in Russian]
Taken from: Eksp Klin Farmakol 1998 May-Jun;61(3):32-4
Iakovleva LV, Ivakhnenko AK, Buniatian ND.
Central Research Laboratory, Ukranian Pharmaceutical Academy, Kharkov, Ukraine.
The article presents the material on the study of the cardioprotective effect of ellagic acid on a model of neoepinephrine myocarditis in rats. In doses of 0.5-1 mg/kg ellagic acid causes a marked antioxidant effect. Restores the disturbed myocardial functions. The reference-agent vitamin E (50 mg/kg) yields to ellagic acid as a cardioprotector. The effect of 0.5 mg/kg of ellagic acid was more stable than that of a 1 mg/kg dose. The cardioprotective activity of the drugs under study was determined according to the POL parameters in a myocardial homogenate and blood serum and according to the EEG parameters and the degree of cardiomyocyte cytolysis.
S T U D Y A B S T R A C T # 1 1
Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells by Grape Seed Extract Occurs via Activation of c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase
Taken from: Clinical Cancer Research 15, 140-149, January 1, 2009. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1447 © 2009 American Association for Cancer Research
Ning Gao1,2, Amit Budhraja2, Senping Cheng2, Hua Yao2, Zhuo Zhang2 and Xianglin Shi2
Authors' Affiliations: 1 Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China and 2 Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky
Purpose: To characterize the functional role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and other apoptotic pathways in grape seed extract (GSE)-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by using pharmacologic and genetic approaches.
Experimental Design: Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of GSE for 12 and 24 h or with 50 µg/mL GSE for various time intervals, after which apoptosis, caspase activation, and cell signaling pathways were evaluated. Parallel studies were done in U937 and HL-60 human leukemia cells.
Results: Exposure of Jurkat cells to GSE resulted in dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis and caspase activation, events associated with the pronounced increase in Cip1/p21 protein level. Furthermore, treatment of Jurkat cells with GSE resulted in marked increase in levels of phospho-JNK. Conversely, interruption of the JNK pathway by pharmacologic inhibitor (e.g., SP600125) or genetic (e.g., small interfering RNA) approaches displayed significant protection against GSE-mediated lethality in Jurkat cells.
Conclusions: The result of the present study showed that GSE induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells through a process that involves sustained JNK activation and Cip1/p21 up-regulation, culminating in caspase activation.
Rick’s note: This study showed that the Grape Seed Extract caused the leukemia cells to go through apoptosis (a form of programmed cell death in multi cellular organisms) in 76% of the cells over a 24 hour period!